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    TYPICAL FOULING FACTORS

fouling factors

    COOLING WATER - Fouling Factors in [m2K/W]

    Conditions cooling water < 50 ° C
    cooled fluid < 120 ° C
    cooling water > 50 ° C
    cooled fluid > 120 ° C
    Water velocity v < 1 m/s          v > 1 m/s          v < 1 m/s          v > 1 m/s         
     
    Type of Water
    Sea0.000090.000090.000180.00018
    Brackish0.000350.000180.000530.00035
    Cooling tower with inhibitor0.000180.000180.000350.00035
    Cooling tower without inhibitor   0.000530.000530.000880.00070
    City grid0.000180.000180.000350.00035
    River mimimum0.000180.000180.000350.00035
    River average0.000530.000350.000700.00035
    Engine jacket0.000180.000180.000180.00018
    Demineralized or distilled0.000090.000090.000090.00009
    Treated Boiler Feedwater0.000180.000090.000180.00018
    Boiler blowdown0.000350.000350.000350.00035


    SEVERAL FLUIDS - Fouling Factors in [m2K/W]

    Group       Fluid       Fouling Factor
    OilGasoil0.00009
    Transformer0.00018
    Lubrication0.00018
    Heat Transfer oil0.00018
    Hydraulic0.00018
     
    Gas and Vapour     Hydrogen0.00176
    Engine exhaust0.00176
    Steam0.00009
    Steam with oiltraces0.00018
    Cooling fluid vapours with oil traces      0.00035
    Organic solvent vapours0.00018
    Compressed air0.00035
    Natural gas0.00018
    Stable top products0.00018
     
    Liquid     Cooling Fluid0.00018
    Organic heat transfer fluids0.00018
    Salts0.00009
    LPG, LNG0.00018
    MEA and DEA (Amines) solutions0.00035
    DEG and TEG (Glycols) solutions0.00035
    Stable side products0.00018
    Stable bottom products0.00018
    Caustics0.00035
    Vegetable Oils0.00053


    REFINERY FLUIDS - Fouling Factors in [m2K/W]

    Crude - wet,
    (bearing salty water)
    Temperature 0 to 95 ° C 95 to 160 ° C 160 to 260 ° C > 95 ° C
    Velocity
    < 0.6 m/s      0.00053    0.00088     0.00105    0.00123    
    0.6 m/s to 1.2 m/s      0.000350.000700.000880.00106
    > 1.2 m/s      0.000350.000700.000700.00088
     
    Crude - dry
    Temperature 0 to 95 ° C 95 to 160 ° C 160 to 260 ° C > 95 ° C
    Velocity
    < 0.6 m/s      0.00053    0.00053     0.00070    0.00088    
    0.6 m/s to 1.2 m/s      0.000350.000350.000530.00070
    > 1.2 m/s      0.000350.000350.000350.00053
     
    Products Gasoline0.00018
    Naphtha and Light Distillates0.00018
    Kerosene0.00018
    Light gas oil0.00035
    Heavy gas oil0.00053
    Heavy fuel oils0.00088
    Asphalt and residuum0.00176
     
    Cracking and
    Coking Units streams
    Overhead vapors0.00035
    Light cycle oil0.00035
    Heavy cycle oil0.00053
    Light coker gas oil0.00053
    Heavy coker gas oil0.00070
    Bottom slurry (> 1.5 m/s)0.00053
    Bottom liquid products0.00035
     
    Catalytic Reforming,
    Hydrocracking,
    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)
    Reformer charge0.00035
    Reformer effluent0.00018
    Hydrocracker charge and effluent0.00035
    Recycle gas0.00018
    HDS charge and effluent0.00035
    Overhead vapors0.00018
    Liquid product > 50 API0.00018
    Liquid product 30 to 50 API0.00035
     
    Light Ends
    processing streams
    Overhead vapors and gases0.00018
    Liquid products0.00018
    Absorption oils0.00035
    Alkylation trace acid streams0.00053
    Reboiler streams0.00053
    Lube oil processing streams0.00053
    Feed stock0.00035
    Solvent feed mix0.00035
    Solvent0.00018
    Extract0.00035
    Raffinate0.00018
    Asphalt0.00088
    Wax slurries0.00053
    Refined lube oil0.00018


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